Breaking Down the Barriers: Quantum Computing Basics Explained!

30 March 2023
4 min read
Hrant Gharibyan
Co-founder & CEO
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Quantum computing is a rapidly evolving field with the potential to revolutionize the way we approach computing.

The ability to solve problems exponentially faster than classical computers could put quantum computing in a position to have a significant impact on many industries.

This article provides an accessible and informative guide to the basics of quantum computing, including key terms and concepts, how it works, and its pros and cons.

The goal is to break down the barriers of quantum computing and provide a detailed overview of this exciting and rapidly evolving technology.

Quantum Theory in a Nutshell

Quantum theory is a set of principles that govern the behavior of matter and energy on a subatomic level. Unlike classical physics, which describes the behavior of macroscopic objects, quantum theory deals with the behavior of particles that are incredibly small and often behave in ways that seem counterintuitive.

The core principles of quantum theory include superposition, entanglement, and the uncertainty principle.


Superposition is the idea that particles can exist in multiple states simultaneously. For example, a particle can be in two different locations at the same time or spin be up and down simultaneously. This principle has profound implications for computing, as it allows quantum computers to perform many calculations in parallel and at once.


Entanglement is another key principle of quantum theory, where two particles become linked in such a way that their states become dependent on each other. This can allow for faster communication and computation, as changes in the state of one particle can instantaneously affect the state of the other, no matter how far apart they are.

The Uncertainty Principle

The uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, states that the position and momentum of a particle cannot be precisely measured simultaneously due to the wave-particle duality of matter. It has important implications for quantum computing, as measuring a qubit can cause it to collapse into one of two possible states, potentially affecting the outcome of a quantum computation.

In the next section, we will delve into the basics of quantum computing, including its key concepts, terminology, and use cases. By understanding the fundamentals of quantum computing, we can gain insight into the potential benefits of this exciting technology for our everyday computing systems.

Quantum Computing Basics: Definition, Terminology, Usage

Quantum computing is a computing paradigm that relies on the principles of quantum mechanics. Unlike classical computing, which uses bits to represent information as either a 0 or 1, qubits can exist in a superposition of both 0 and 1 at the same time, allowing quantum computers to perform many calculations simultaneously.

Key terms and concepts in quantum computing include quantum gates, which are operations that transform the state of qubits, and quantum algorithms, which are sets of instructions that allow quantum computers to solve specific problems. 

One of the most well-known quantum algorithms is Shor's algorithm, which can factor large numbers exponentially faster than any classical algorithm.This will allow quantum computers to break modern cryptographic security protocols. While quantum computing is still in its early stages of development, it has the potential to impact many industries, from finance to healthcare.

Key Terms Explained

To understand the basic concepts of quantum computing, it's important to have a grasp of some of the most widely used terms in the field. Below is a brief explanation of several key terms you should know.

Classical Bit

The fundamental building block of classical computing, a bit is a binary digit that represents either a 0 or 1.

Qubit or Quantum Bit

The fundamental building block of quantum computing, a qubit is a two-state quantum-mechanical system that can exist in a superposition of both 0 and 1 at the same time.


The principle that a qubit can exist in multiple states simultaneously, allowing quantum computers to perform many calculations in parallel.


The phenomenon where two particles become linked in such a way that their states become dependent on each other.


A tool used to simulate the behavior of a quantum computer on a classical CPU or GPU. Quantum cloud simulators are particularly useful, as they allow users to test their quantum programs on a CPU/GPU before running it on a real quantum device. BlueQubit, for example, provides one of the fastest quantum simulators, allowing users to run quantum programs with ease.

Classical Circuit

A circuit that represents classical computations using classical bits and classical gates.

Quantum Circuit

A circuit that represents quantum computations using qubits and quantum gates.

Quantum Algorithm

A set of instructions that allow quantum computers to solve specific problems.

Quantum Computing Use Cases in the 21st Century

Quantum computing is expected to have a significant impact on various industries, including finance and healthcare, due to its ability to solve problems that are impossible for classical computers to tackle. Below are some examples of the emerging use cases and benefits of quantum technologies for 21st-century society.

Quantum Cryptography

Quantum cryptography is a technique that uses quantum mechanics to secure communications. 

Unlike classical cryptography, which is based on mathematical algorithms, quantum cryptography uses the principles of quantum mechanics to protect information. It offers a high level of security, as any attempt to intercept or measure the information will disturb its quantum state. This has a wide range of implications in national security, cryptocurrencies, and ecommerce.  

Drug Discovery

Quantum computing can accelerate drug discovery by simulating and analyzing the behavior of molecules more efficiently than classical computers. 

Quantum computing could help researchers identify new drug candidates faster and with greater accuracy, potentially reducing the time and costs associated with bringing new drugs to market. By using quantum mechanics to understand the behavior of molecules, researchers can develop more precise and effective drugs, and potentially find treatments for diseases that are currently incurable.

Financial Modeling

Quantum computing can be used to perform complex financial modeling and risk analysis. 

Quantum computing's ability to handle large datasets and complex calculations simultaneously can help financial institutions optimize their investment portfolios, manage risk, and improve pricing models. By using quantum computing, financial institutions can make more informed decisions, which could lead to greater profits and reduced risk.

Artificial Intelligence

Quantum computing has the potential to transform the field of artificial intelligence by helping scientists develop faster and more efficient machine learning algorithms

For example, quantum computers could help optimize the training of deep neural networks, or enable the simulation of large-scale quantum AI models. By combining quantum computing and artificial intelligence, researchers can potentially develop AI systems that are more intelligent and powerful than those we have today.

a robot created with quantum computing

Energy Optimization

Quantum computing can be used to optimize energy usage in a variety of industries, from manufacturing to transportation. 

By simulating and analyzing the behavior of molecules and materials, quantum computers can help identify ways to reduce energy consumption, increase efficiency, and reduce waste. This could potentially lead to significant cost savings and a reduced carbon footprint.

Final Thoughts on Quantum Computing Basics

While the concepts around quantum computing may seem daunting for newcomers, we encourage everyone to explore this exciting new technology, as it has the potential to impact many industries and solve some of the world's most complex problems. 

BlueQubit offers an accessible platform for beginners to start exploring quantum computing, with user-friendly features and access to fast quantum simulators  and QPUs to help users run quantum programs with ease. 

The BlueQubit platform provides an easy-to-use interface, integration with open-source libraries like Cirq and Qiskit, and access to fast quantum simulators and real QPUs that allow anyone to run quantum programs with ease. So why not give it a try and see what you can achieve with BlueQubit?

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